42. Misunderstandings on Ramsay’s part (cf. Ramsay, An Essay, p. 22 n.) in which he followed Ricardo’s own misunderstandings (cf. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, pp. 5, 7–8, 9).
43. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. I, pp. 101–2, 131–4.
44. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, pp. 338–9.
45. ibid., p. 3: ‘In speaking of commodities … we mean commodities … on the production of which competition operates without restraint.’
46. ibid., p. 86.
47. De Quincey, The Logic of Political Economy, Edinburgh, 1844, p. 204.
48. De Quincey, Logic of Political Economy, p. 204.
NOTEBOOK VI: The Chapter on Capital (continuation)
1. Carey, Principles of Political Economy, Part I, p. 99.
2. J. R. MacCulloch, The Principles of Political Economy, London, 1825, pp. 313–18.
3. The extracts from Ricardo appear in a ‘Notebook VIII’ of an earlier series of notebooks dated 1851. Excerpts are printed in Grundrisse (MELI) as an appendix, omitted in the present edition.
4. R.5: Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, p. 5 (in fact p. 3).
5. The page numbers in Ricardo refer to the third edition (1821).
6. Bray, Labour’s Wrongs, p. 48.
7. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. I, pp. 100–102, 130–31.
8. Marx, here as elsewhere, quotes in his own abbreviated German. The text therefore differs slightly from Ricardo’s original. Compare Ricardo, Principles, p. 5.
9. Wakefield, A View of the Art of Colonization, p. 169.
10. Should read 4.7%, but the error has been taken over from Malthus himself. Cf. Malthus, Principles of Political Economy, pp. 269–70. Two other petty errors of arithmetic in these passages have been corrected as indicated by the MELI editors.
11. Ravenstone, Thoughts on the Funding System, p. 11.
12. Malthus, The Measure of Value, p. 33.
14. Malthus, The Measure of Value, p. 29.
15. Carey, Principles of Political Economy, Part I, pp. 76–8.
16. ibid., p. 99.
17. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. I, pp. 230–31, note by Wakefield the editor.
18. Albert Gallatin (1761–1849; American public figure of Swiss origin, academic, diplomat, and banker, author of many books on financial questions), Considerations on the Currency and Banking System of the United States, Philadelphia, 1831, p. 68.
19. John Wade (1788–1875) was a journalist and historian, and parliamentary reformer, who worked for a long time with the Spectator, and whose History of the Middle and Working Classes was described by Marx as ‘theoretically … original in some parts … historically … a shameless plagiarism from Sir F. M. Eden’.
20. Gaskell, Artisans and Machinery, pp. 111–14.
21. Babbage, Traité sur l’économie, p. 485.
22. Pellegrino Rossi (1787–1848; Italian political economist, supporter of Napoleon I, in exile from 1815, first in Geneva then in France, professor of political economy at the Collège de France 1833–40, created a peer in 1844, returned to Italy as French ambassador, became prime minister of the Pope’s government in 1848, finally assassinated in the course of a speech in favour of moderation), Cours d’économie politique, Brussels, 1843.
23. R. Torrens, An Essay on the Production of Wealth, London, 1821, pp. 70–71.
24. Labour in being, not in potency.
25. Cf. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, pp. 31–2, ‘There can be no rise in the value of labour without a fall of profits … If cloth … be divided between the workman and his employer, the larger the proportion given to the former, the less remains for the latter.’
26. H. C. Carey, The Past, the Present, and the Future, Philadelphia, 1848, pp. 74–5.
27. The Reverend Thomas Chalmers (1780–1847) was a Scottish Presbyterian minister who taught moral philosophy and divinity, as well as political economy; ‘one of the most fanatical Malthusians’ (Marx).
28. F.-L.-A. Ferrier, Du gouvernement considéré dans ses rapports avec le commerce, Paris, 1805, p. 35. Ferrier (1777–1861) was a high French customs official who both operated and wrote in favour of Napoleon I’s protective system.