22. Adam Smith, Recherches sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations, Vol. I, p. 193.
23. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, pp. 338–9.
24. Ramsay, An Essay, pp. 179–80.
25. Marx made extracts from these works on organic chemistry: J. von Liebig, Die organische Chemie, 4th edn, Brunswick, 1842; J. F. W. Johnston, Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology, 2nd edn, London, 1847; and J. F. W. Johnston, Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry and Geology, Edinburgh, 1849.
26. See the section on Bastiat and Carey, pp. 883–93.
27. In fact, see below pp. 889–90.
28. See p. 86, n. 7.
29. Sismondi, Nouveaux Principes, Vol. I, p. 90.
30. op. cit., Vol. I, p. 82.
31. op. cit., Vol. I, p. 89.
32. Torrens, An Essay on the Production of Wealth, p. 52.
33. s/(c + v) < s/v is the correct expression; but the manuscript has: (c + v)/s < v/s, struck out but not replaced by anything else. [MELI note]
34. Robert Owen, Six Lectures Delivered in Manchester, Manchester, 1837, p. 58; see above, pp. 712–14.
35. Benjamin Thompson (1753–1814), American adventurer, who entered the service of George III, was created Count of Rumford in 1784, issued Essays, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, in London, 1796–1802, in which he recommended various inferior forms of food for labourers; discussed by Marx in Capital, Vol I, Moscow 1954, p. 601.
36. The MELI edition gives aufgelöst (dissolved) rather than ausgelöst (triggered, released). This is in all probability a misreading of the handwritten manuscript. (The f and one form of the s are virtually indistinguishable in the old-style German script Marx used at that time.)
37. Wakefield’s note on p. 64 of Vol. I of his edition of Adam Smith (London, 1835–9).
38. Steuart, An Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy, Vol. I, p. 399.
39. ibid., pp. 403–5.
40. Geminiano Montanari, Della moneta, trattato mercantile, in Custodi (ed.), Scrittori Classici Italiani di Economia Politica, Parte Antica, Tomo III, Milan, 1804.
41. Tuckett, A History, Vol. I, p. 157 n.
42. ibid., p. 204.
43. Eden, The State of the Poor, Vol. I., pp. 119–20.
44. Marx collected and annotated an immense amount of material on the various theories of the exchange rate: he included this in a draft of 1854–5 entitled ‘Money System, Credit System, and Crises’. This manuscript remains unpublished.
45. The Economist, Vol. XVI, No. 759, 13 March 1858, p. 290, article entitled ‘Will the Low Rate of Interest Last?’.
46. David Urquhart, Familiar Words as Affecting England and the English London, 1856, p. 112.
47. See above, p. 782, quotation from Steuart.
48. ‘Sterlings’ in the original text.
49. Marx’s English in the above sentence has been altered to conform to modern usage. His use, in these and other passages, of terms which today have an offensive ring (e.g. ‘semi-civilized’, ‘uncivilized’, ‘savage’, ‘semi-savage’, where what is meant is simply ‘pre-capitalist’) reflects the general blindness of European scholarship towards non-European civilizations, and indicates the relative weakness of anti-colonial political movements at the time. This did not prevent Marx from being an enemy of colonialism and of great-power chauvinism in every form.
50. The wars of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods, 1793–1815.